The 680 000 inhabitants of Bhutan are of three main ethnic groups.
The Sharchopas, who are considered to be the earliest inhabitants of Bhutan, live mostly in Eastern Bhutan. They are of Indo-Mongoloid origin.
The Ngalops populate mostly Western Bhutan. They migrated from the Tibetan plains and are the importers of Buddhism to Bhutan.
The Lhotsampas who are of Nepalese origin settled in the southern foothills of the country in the early twentieth century.
This ethnic diversity of the people has resulted in numerous dialects and languages that are spoken throughout the country but Dzongkha is the national language.

With approximately 95% of its people practicing traditional farming, Bhutan is an agrarian society where people live close to the land that sustains them.

Bhutan is the only country in the world to retain the Tantric form of Mahayana Buddhism as its official religion. Although originating from the Tibetan Buddhism, Bhutanese Buddhism differs significantly in its rituals, liturgy and monastic organization.
Buddhists represent about 70% of the Bhutanese population.
Hinduism is practiced by 26% of the people.
An even smaller religious minority of the population practices Islam, they are 3%.

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